Manas 3 (2017), 2.
Published on 03.11.2017 http://manas.bg/en/issue_4/religious-educational-institutions-under-abbasids-problems-typology
Shinikov, Atanas. Religious Educational Institutions Under The Abbasids: Problems Of Typology. – In: Manas: The Arab World and Islam in Cultural-Historical Perspective, Vol. 3, 2, 2017.
Scholarly observations have outlined the extreme diversity of Muslim educational institutions during the Abbasid caliphate (750–1258). There is clearly a need to develop and sustain a consistent typology of educational institutions. The present paper examines the most authoritative systematization attempt undertaken by George Makdisi (d. 2002). An analysis of the suggested typology reveals a certain incoherence in the terminological framework, and also necessitates the maintenance of consistent criteria to distinguish among the various institutions. Thus, the Muslim religious educational landscape can ultimately be reduced to the basic forms of the scholarly circles (majālis-ḥalaqāt), as well as the religious school (madrasa).
Keywords: Muslim education, educational institutions, Abbasids, George Makdisi, typology, madrasa, majālis, ḥalaqāt